DHQ: Digital Humanities Quarterly

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DHQ Style Guidelines

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All formatting and presentational details will be governed by the DHQ publication stylesheets and are not typically under the control of the author. The formatting of non-XML submissions should be internally consistent, to allow for ease of encoding. However, if your submission contains idiosyncratic formatting which is textually significant, please indicate this in your submission, and we will be happy to discuss it with you.

If you would like to prepare your submission in XML using the DHQ schema (a TEI customization), please use the DHQ author template. The DHQ schema and ODD file are also available.


Use the system which you are most accustomed to using, but be consistent.


Initials should be followed by a full point and a space, e.g. E. M. Forster, W. H. Auden.

& should be written out as 'and'.

Use a % sign for 5%, 25%, etc.

No apostrophe in 1920s, 1950s, etc.

Decimal point should be on the line: 5.2, 3.9, etc.

Common abbreviations such as et al., viz., and similar should not be italicized.

Numbers below 100 and vaguely expressed numbers should be spelled out.

Precise numbers, units of measurement, and numbers above 100 should be in figures.

Abbreviations should be spelled out the first time they are used.


Cross-references in the text should be represented as follows, using capitalized names written in full:

  • see Section 2.5
  • see Appendix 1
  • see Figure 1

Do not abbreviate "sec." for Section, "fig." for Figure etc.

Note: if you encode your paper using DHQ ML, such cross-references (with their formatting and numbering) can be auto-generated from tagging, just as we will do it (saving all of us work).

We will support cross-referencing to the following: sections (div elements), figures, examples (which may have labels and captions) including code examples, tables, bibliographic listings, inset texts (xtext) and appendices. Cross-references will be normalized, but may reference by title or label as well as by number. Numbering will be auto-generated from implicit links in the document source, so try to get your cross-references right (because errors here may survive document conversion).


This includes illustrations, artwork, tables. We will accept figures in any of a number of web-ready formats, including PNG, JPG, GIF, PDF and SVG.

Whenever possible we would like versions of figures and illustrations suitable for reproduction in print as well as on screen. A high-resolution version can always be downsampled, and provides better long-term possibilities. In special instances we may be able to accept illustrations in non-digital form, for digital conversion, but this must be individually arranged.

Note that according to the DHQ Author document model, certain elements such as tables, figures (which can include graphs and graphics), and examples, can appear either in or out of line. Be as clear as possible indicating both the preferred location of one of these elements in the text, and whether they may "float". (Note that editorial discretion with respect to such matters may be applied in any case.)

Figures may have labels and descriptive captions, both of which should have the first word capitalized. References by head to a figure, table or example will be generated for you (e.g. "Table 1: Proper nouns and syntactic organization"), so feel free to use these constructs.

Do not type a label or caption on a graphic, but include it in the main body of your text. To ensure correct matching up of tables/figures to captions, include a reference to the filename of the graphic in the text where the graphic should be included.

Labeled examples

Like figures, examples (which may include code samples) may have labels and descriptive captions, both of which should have the first word capitalized. They may also be cross-referenced.

Not all quotes or block quotes have to be formally presented as examples, however; this is an authorial decision.

Notes and references

Notes should be used only for comments, not for simple bibliographic citations. Notes should be numbered consecutively throughout the text, and their anchor point in the text should be clearly identifiable. If you are not submitting in DHQauthor format (or another DHQ ML format in consultation with us), all notes should be gathered together at the end of the article. (If you are submitting in DHQauthor format, you may encode notes inline, and they will be extracted by a stylesheet.)

Bibliographic references should be made inline and the works cited should be listed in a section at the end of the article headed "References". The list should be in alphabetical order by reference label (the citation string). Where an author has more than one publication, they should be arranged in chronological order, and if there is more than one publication within a year, they should be alphabetically ordered by title and labelled a, b, etc. (e.g. 1989a, 1989b). Note that reference labels may contain spaces (e.g. [Sperberg-McQueen 1995]). Single-author works precede co-authored works. Please follow the examples given below for bibliographic layout.

If you are submitting in DHQauthor format, full bibliographic references may be encoded in line (where they are cited). These will be extracted by a stylesheet and collected into a References section automatically.

Reference format: Please use the version of the Harvard system described below. References should be cited in the text using the author's name and year of publication, e.g. (Bloggs, 1990; Bloggs et al., 1991). (Again, authors using DHQ XML will find guidance on these issues in the DHQauthor Schema documentation.)

[Biber 1988] Biber, D. Variation Across Speech and Writing. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1989).

[Calzolari 1989] Calzolari, N. A Typology of English Texts, Linguistics, 27: 3-43.

[Computer-Aided Lexicography 1989] "Computer-Aided Lexicography: Dictionaries and Word Databases." In I. S. Batori, W. Lenders, and W. Putschke (eds), Computational Linguistics, Berlin (1989), pp. 510-19.

[Ellis 1987] Ellis, D. The Derivation of a Behavioural Model for Information Retrieval Design. Ph.D. thesis, University of Sheffield (1987).

[Halliday 1985] Halliday, M. A. K. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Edward Arnold, London (1985).

[Oostdijk 1988] Oostdijk, N. “A Corpus Linguistic Approach to Linguistic Variation”, Literary and Linguistic Computing, 3 (1988): 12-25.

[Richardson 1988] Richardson, S. D. and Braden-Harder, L. “The Experience of Developing a Large-Scale Natural Language Text Processing System” CRITIQUE: Proceedings of the Second Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing, Austin, Texas, February 1988.

[Wallraff 1988] Wallraff, B. “The Literate Computer”, The Atlantic Monthly, 261.1 (1988): 64-71.